A process typically applied in a ladle furnace for alloying, deoxidation, desulphurisation as well as for temperature adjustment prior to casting of quality steels.
Lances are hollow steel bars which can resist very high temperatures. They are used to introduce additional elements into the melting vessel after it has been charged with its principal raw materials. In both types of steelmaking, a lance is principally used to inject oxygen into the melt. This is essential in BOF steelmaking to achieve the chemical conversion of iron into steel, whereas in EAFs, oxygen injection is more usually associated with generating additional energy in the melt to reduce electricity consumption.
Lead is added to steel to enhance its machinability, and is a key feature of premium low-carbon free-cutting (free-machining) steels. Lead’s much lower melting point and the fact that it is insoluble in steel, means that during machining it melts and forms a lubricating layer at the point of contact between machining tool and the steel being turned, milled or drilled. This lubrication allows faster machining through higher rotational and material feed speeds, and enhances cutting tool life. The lead in the steel also helps reduce deformation stresses.
Along with iron ore and coke, limestone is an important ingredient in blast furnace ironmaking. The function of limestone is to react with impurities introduced by the other two ingredients to form a slag which can be removed from the furnace without contaminating the iron. The heat inside the blast furnace converts limestone into calcium oxide and CO2 gas. Calcium oxide readily reacts with impurities like silica, sulphur, alumina and magnesia to form a slag. This gradually filters down through the furnace to settle on top of the liquid iron where it can be tapped off.
Line pipe is the type of pipe that is used in the surface transmission of oil, natural gas and other fluids.
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