The costs of mining, milling and concentrating, onsite administration and general expenses, property and production royalties not related to revenues or profits, metal concentrate treatment charges, and freight and marketing costs less the net value of the by-product credits.
This is a steel that is made up mostly of the element carbon. It relies on the carbon content for its structure. Most of the steel produced in the world is carbon steel.
This is a method of heat treatment which increases the hardness of the surface of low carbon steels, while leaving a softer interior which is tougher and more fracture resistant. The hardness is usually achieved by dissolving either carbon or nitrogen in the surface layer of the steel.
This is the process of pouring molten metal into a mould enabling the cool and solid metal to retain the shape of the mould.
A cogging mill is a heavy duty rolling mill that is used for shaping reheated steel ingots into blooms or slabs. The mill allows the ingot to pass and re-pass through the rolling stand until the profile that is desired is achieved.
Coke is a processed form of coal and is the basic fuel consumed in blast furnaces during the smelting of iron. Coke, iron ore and limestone are the principal inputs for blast furnace ironmaking. Coke provides thermal energy, combines with the oxygen in the ore to release iron, and ensures a permeable physical structure within the furnace to allow hot gases to move upwards, heating the incoming materials, causing the molten iron and slag to move downwards for tapping.
A coke oven battery is a set of ovens that process coal into coke. They are constructed in batteries of ten to 100 ovens that are 20 feet tall, 40 feet long, and less than two feet wide. Coke batteries are usually the dirtiest area in a steel mill complex as they are affected by the exhaust fumes emitted when coke is pushed from the ovens.
Coking coal contains certain properties that suit it to iron making, unlike the thermal or steaming coal that is used in power stations/industrial or domestic heating. Also unlike steaming coal, when heated in the absence of air, coking coal forms a hard and sponge-like material which is called coke.
Cold finishing is the process of steel either with surface removal (polishing, grinding, peeling) or without surface removal (e.g. through wire drawing), primarily for further machining into shapes such as gears, shafts, hydraulic fittings etc
The term 'cold rolled coil' is given to the process of flat rolled steel that has been rolled on a cold strip mill to reduce thickness and improve flatness. This form of gauge reduction can also be referred to as cold reduction.
Cold rolled strip is a sheet steel that has been pickled and run through a cold-reduction mill. It differs from hot-rolled sheet because it is considerably thinner and stronger, allowing it to be sold for a premium.
Cold working is where the structure and shape of steel is changed through rolling, hammering or stretching at low or room temperatures. This process is done to create a permanent increase in the hardness and strength of the steel.
Colour coated or prepainted steel, or prepaint, is used to describe steel coil that has been coated in paint, powder or film while being applied in a continuous process prior to it being cut and shaped. It provides a durable uniform surface finish, and can be an alternative to conventional post-manufacture painting of steel parts.
Concentrate is a fine powder-like product between ore and metal where much of the waste mineral has been eliminated, leaving a higher concentration of the required mineral than in the original ore.
Continuous casting is the process in which molten steel is poured into a water-cooled copper mould allowing it to gradually solidify as it moves down the mould. Once the steel solidifies it becomes known as a steel billet, bloom, or slab. The process has become the preferred method for making semi-finished steel because of much better yield, productivity and cost performance.
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