An AC (Alternating Current) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction and changes its magnitude continuously with time in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket.
Aluminium alloys are when aluminum (AI) is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon, tin and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. In lithium-ion batteries, where thin-walled formation is required, aluminum alloys are used.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It has nine times the energy density of Li-ion batteries, and three times that of compressed hydrogen, creating potential as a carbon-free energy carrier and less volatile fluid than compressed or liquid hydrogen.
Amorphous graphite is found as extremely small, crystal-like particles in beds of mesomorphic rocks like coal, slate and shale, and its carbon content depends on that of its parent material. There are three main types of graphite: Flake, vein, and amorphous. Graphite is a key component in the lithium-ion host structure for the negative electrode. Graphite is used in the majority of commercial lithium-ion batteries, despite extensive research to find alternatives with enhanced power and/or energy density, while maintaining the excellent cycling stability.
The ampere, or 'amp' for short, measures electric current, which is a flow of electrons along a wire or ions in an electrolyte, as in batteries.
An anode is the positive electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarised electrical device. This contrasts with a cathode, the negative electrode through which conventional current leaves an electrical device. A common mnemonic is ACID, for "anode current into device".
A battery is a device containing an electric cell or a series of electric cells storing energy that can be converted into electrical power (usually in the form of direct current). Electrochemical cells transform chemical energy into electrical energy. Inside the battery is an electrolyte, often consisting of soluble salts or acids. It serves as a conductive medium, allowing the electric charge to travel through the battery.
Battery raw materials are the materials used to make batteries. 60% of batteries is made up of a combination of materials like zinc (anode), manganese (cathode) and potassium. Critical raw materials used in manufacturing Li-ion batteries (LIBs) include lithium, graphite, cobalt, and manganese
Battery recycling is a recycling activity that aims to reduce the number of batteries being disposed as municipal solid waste. Batteries contain a number of heavy metals and toxic chemicals and their dumping has raised concerns over soil contamination and water pollution. Most batteries can be recycled and we see that nearly 90% of all lead acid automotive batteries are recycled. Unfortunatly, it is much less so for Lithium-ion batteries with just 5% being recycled globally (2021), most likely due to their size, hundreds of complicated of compentents, and harzardous materials. However, Lithium-ion batteries contain valueable materials which can be recovered during the recyling process, such as copper and aluminiumin addition to cobalt and nickel as well as other rare earths. In order to avoid supply shortages of cobalt, nickel, and lithium and to make sure this battery has a sustainable life cycle, recycling for lithium batteries is really important.
Battery swapping is a process where a discharged battery or battery pack can be immediately swapped for a fully charged one, eliminating the delay involved in waiting for the vehicle's battery to charge. This can be done at battery swapping (or switching) stations.
BEV (battery electric vehicle), also known as pure electric vehicle or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that exclusively uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs, with no secondary source of propulsion (e.g. hydrogen fuel cell, internal combustion engine, etc). BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines (ICEs) for propulsion.
Blue hydrogen is derived from natural gas through the process of steam methane reforming (SMR). SMR mixes natural gas with very hot steam, in the presence of a catalyst, where a chemical reaction creates hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Additional water is added to the mixture converting the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and creating more hydrogen. The carbon dioxide emissions produced are then captured and stored leaving nearly pure hydrogen.
Bue hydrogen follows the same same process as grey hydrogen, except for the additional step where the the carbon is captured and stored.
Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. Produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernovae and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in the Solar System and in the Earth's crust. It constitutes about 0.001 percent by weight of Earth's crust. Boron can be added to Li-ion battery electrodes, and when combined with other stabilization strategies such as protective coatings, could boost the energy density and stability needed to push the driving range per charge of EVs beyond the 300-mile mark.
Brown Hydrogen comes from brown coal, also known as Lignite. This ‘younger’ coal contains a considerably higher percentage of oxygen and hydrogen than the more familiar and older, black variety. The ‘gassification’ of brown coal creates a synthesis gas which is a mix of mainly carbon monoxide with hydrogen, steam and carbon dioxide. This syngas is then cleaned in conventional ways to recover the hydrogen but that then leaves a considerable volume of greenhouse gases to deal with. Using black coal or lignite (brown coal) in the hydrogen-making process, these black and brown hydrogen are the absolute opposite of green hydrogen in the hydrogen spectrum and the most environmentally damaging.
Cadmium is a soft, malleable, ductile, silvery-white divalent metal. It is similar in many respects to zinc but forms complex compounds. Unlike most other metals, cadmium is resistant to corrosion and is used as a protective plate on other metals. The nickel–cadmium battery (Ni-Cd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.
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